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 김남일 2005-11-11 01:44:36 | 조회 : 5982
제      목  네그리뛰드(negritude)
'세네갈 출신의 L.S.상고르 , 마르티니크섬 출신의 시인 A.세제르 등 파리에 거주하는 아프리카 지식인과 아프리카계(系) 지식인들이 1930년대 이래 주장한 \'아프리카의 문화적 주체성\'의 개념이다. 프랑스 식민지 통치하의 아프리카와 프랑스령(領) 앤틸리스제도에서 파리에 유학온 흑인노예의 자손인 유학생이 1934~1940년에 발행한 잡지 《흑인학생》의 슬로건으로 내건 말이지만, 세제르가 1939년에 발행한 시집 《귀향수첩》에서 처음으로 만들어낸 조어(造語)이다.

상고르는 네그리튀드를 정의하여 \'아프리카 흑인문명의 문화적 유산·가치관, 특히 정신\'이라고 하였다. 그러나 프랑스 식민지 정책의 지도원리의 하나인 동화주의(同化主義)에 대한 반작용으로 생겨난 것으로서, 프랑스 문화 또는 유럽 문화의 본질적 우위성(優位性)을 부정하고, 동시에 아프리카 문화의 전통적 풍요를 주장한다. 또 문화적 배타주의(排他主義)를 거부하고 더 풍부한 보편적 문명의 창조와 발전을 위해 모든 문화·문명이 변증법적(辨證法的)으로 종합되는 방향을 지향하는 것이기도 하다.

제2차 세계대전 후 파리에서 창설된 아프리카인 문화단체 \'프레장스 아프리케느\'는 같은 이름의 기관지를 통하여 네그리튀드 운동을 전개하여 네그리튀드를 프랑스어권 아프리카의 주체적 이데올로기의 중심개념으로까지 발전시켰다. 이런 과정에서 네그리튀드 개념은 문화적 차원뿐 아니라 정치적·경제적 차원에서도 중시되었다. 세네갈 대통령이 된 상고르가 네그리튀드 개념을 그 특유의 \'아프리카 사회주의\'의 이데올로기적 기초로 한 것은 그 좋은 예이다.

반면에 네그리튀드는 프랑스어의 \'흑인\'과 \'상태·태도\'를 뜻하는 접미어를 합성한 말이기 때문에 새로운 인종차별을 만들어낸다는 비판도 있다. 그러나 가나 대통령 K.은크루마가 제창하여 영어권 아프리카에서 널리 사용된 \'아프리카의 개성\'과 함께 독립기(獨立期) 아프리카의 주체성을 일깨운 공은 매우 크다. (네이버 백과사전)

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이전글 | 탈식민주의(Post Colonialism) [2736] 김남일   2005/11/11
다음글 | 마그레브 (Maghreb) [288] 김남일   2005/11/09

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